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Behind the Myth of 3 million - Chapter - V: The Recycling of the Myth PDF Print E-mail
ePublication
Written by Dr. M. Abdul Mu’min Chowdhury   
Thursday, 01 February 1996 00:00
Article Index
Behind the Myth of 3 million
Chapter- I: The Making of The Myth
Chapter - II: The Probity of the Myth
Chapter - III: Mujib's Search for Fact
Chapter - IV: The Truth that Mujib Suppressed
Chapter - V: The Recycling of the Myth
Chapter - VI: The Forgotten Humanity
Chapter - VII: The Glimpses of Truth
Chapter - VIII: Behind the Myth
All Pages

5.1. The Later-Day Peddlers of the Myth:

Because Mujib and his Government could not face hard facts and continued to assert unfounded claims, certain individuals and groups hurbouring hatred against Islam and Pakistan had a 'field-day'. Since they had no fresh accusation to make against Pakistan, recycling the old accusation, however ridiculous, became their preoccupation. Numerous articles and a large number of books were written not only with the avowed aim of recording 'Pakistani Crime' but also conveniently saying hosanna to the 'greatest Bengali of all time' and claiming a share of the glory that was the 'freedom movement in Bangladesh'

The situation was opportune. While the Indians professed to having trained 130,000 'freedom fighters' [1], 3,300,000 actually claimed that distinction and obtained certificates by all manner of means to prove that they were bona fide. [2] Those who could not make such a claim because of age, domicile, or some such reason, became seers, soothsayers, or, at the very least, sufferers for Bangladesh. All of them sang and swore. Indeed, what better target for swearing could there be, other than the ‘abnormal Pakistan’ and the ‘abominable Pakistan Army’?


5.2. Two Examples:
To give some idea of the recycling enterprises of the time, I shall choose two out of the many possible: Abul Hasanat's ‘The Ugliest Genocide in History’ and Jyoti Sen Gupta's ‘History of Freedom Movement in Bangladesh 1943-1973 - Some Involvement’. Both of these were written in 1974, the first by a retired Bangladeshi police officer and the second by an Indian journalist from West Bengal.

5.3. The Ugliest Genocide:

The author of 'The Ugliest Genocide in History', Abul Hasanat was a retired Inspector General of Police and a professed atheist in his seventies. Although he opted for Pakistan in 1947 and had enjoyed the highest office in its Police Service, he did not find any difficulty in depicting his once chosen country 'A Geographical Monstrosity' [3] and saying that 'Jinnah Arrogantly Merged the Two Wings'. [4] As if this was not enough for him to say 'Hail Bangladesh', he went on reciting hosanna to Mujib:

“Bangladesh is the sole handiwork of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, our great leader, devotedly served by a band of tireless workers and supported by 99% of the population. Any Zaid, Amr, Bakr with a fair capability can top the Army, Navy, Police and Civil Services but a leader like Mujib is a rare product of a century or so. We salute Mujib for his unswerving devotion to a just cause, his unflinching fortitude in suffering and his unflagging conviction about the ultimate victory. His has been the victory and we share the glory." [5]

Of course, as expected of his kind, he did not forget those who really mattered:

"We salute our great neighbour, the biggest and the most stable post-war Democracy. In spite of tremendous difficulties, it has never thought of Martial Law or a hand-over to the Army. It has been led by illustrious and irreproachable figures - Nehru, Shastri and Mrs Gandhi.

Mrs. Gandhi has upheld lofty human principles by coming all out for the stricken people of East Bengal. Her people have supported her in the noble struggle, and her armed forces in alliance with our Mukti Bahini have taught the Punjabi-Pathan hordes the lesson of their life. We shall be eternally grateful to the Indian people, so near and dear to us." [6]

"In this connection," wrote Abul Hasanat, "let us recall the MARVELOUS SELF-RESTRAINT OF INDIAN HINDUS!" [7] and went on recycling the proof of the Pakistan Army's Punjabi-Pathan hordes' 'The Ghastly Genocide' [8] A large selection of foreign journalists' reports which appeared in world press before December 1971 accusing Pakistan of committing genocide in East Pakistan were, of course, included. But despite every conceivable hyperbole, so far as the 'concrete proof' only the following were provided:

* Kushtia, a city of 40,000 looked ‘like the morning after a nuclear attack’ [9]
* 400,000 women, known to have been raped. [10]
* 200,000 fell pregnant to West Pakistani soldiers. [11] * About 400 killed at Chuadanga. [12]
* 200 students Killed at Iqbal Hall [13]
* 20,000 killed in Jessore town. [14]


5.4. History of Freedom Movement:

Reserving comment on the concrete 'facts' made available by Abul Hasanat, let me turn to Jyoti Sen Gupta. He was, by his own claim, someone 'who had also some involvement in the struggle of the Bengalis of "East Pakistan". This claim coming from a foreign journalist may sound strange. But, then, India was not a passive neighbour: nor was Gupta an ordinary news reporter. He was in the 1950s, as he said by quoting Pakistan intelligence, ‘at the top of the list as a dangerous man who is out to destroy Pakistan.’ and thereafter ‘in constant touch with developments secretly taking place in East Pakistan’. [15] His 'insider' story is fascinating and throws light on the extent and depth of Indian ‘political engineering’ behind the rise of Bangladesh and therefore deserves our close attention.

Apart from other issues, Jyoti Sen Gupta did not forget covering the ‘Full-scale Genocide’ [16] which Pakistan allegedly committed in Bangladesh. More significantly he claimed that Pakistan Army had killed 3.5 million [17] and this figure had supposedly been mentioned .by Sheikh Mujib. [18] To lend credibility to his claim, he has recycled varieties of ‘proofs’ from different sources, including the Government of India. Let me list those mentioned:

* All the inmates of Jagannath Hall and Iqbal Hall were slaughtered. [19] At Iqbal Hall, although the number killed is uncertain, not one survivor was found. At Jagannath Hall all 103 students were killed. Some students were forced at gunpoint to dig a mass grave in the field of the hall and they too were shot. [20]
* All the inmates of Ruqaiya Hall were kidnapped to the cantonment and those who resisted were killed. Many jumped from the windows and many others committed suicide. [21]
* Ten faculty members of Dhaka University were killed on the night of 26 March 1971. [22]
* 50,000 Buddhists were slaughtered. [23]
* 7,000 bodies were seen scattered near a Church in Jessore. [24]
* Most of 5,000 Policemen at Dhaka barracks had been killed [25]
* 60 per cent police force were killed [26]
* 25,000 to 35,000 killed in Shakharipatti (a Dhaka street) alone. [27]
* 500 were burnt at the office of Ittefaq.[28]
* 250 murdered at Ramna Kalibari. [29]
* At least 17,000 Awami Leaguers were killed [30]
* 100,000 killed in the district of Khulna. [31]
* 100,000 killed in Chittagong [32]


5.5. Sifting facts from fictions:

There was no disagreement on the fact that on the night of 26 March 1971 the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan was sent out of their barracks to re-establish government authority and to sort out the secessionists. Like any such army crack down, it was swift, sharp and brutal. There could be no doubt that many innocent, as well as not so innocent, people got killed, not just on that fateful night but throughout the nine months desperate battle to save the integrity of the country. The question is not whether, but how many (and in what manner, perhaps) people were killed?

In the confusing situation of a civil war, especially one that is characterised by insurgency and guerilla warfare, where the bulk of the civilian population found themselves engulfed by the conflict, often literally at the middle of cross fire, people's falling victim at the hands of either of the fighting forces was almost inevitable. In such a situation, a certain degree of confusion and misreporting were also expected. Moreover, as in with any war, deceit, disinformation and propaganda had their part. In the light of all of this, the charges against the Pakistan Army that were repeatedly alleged all over the world, the degree of magnification was astounding by any previous known standards though, were understandable. But what was perplexing was the attempt to pass on these highly exaggerated 'reports', saturated with lies, under the guise of authentic accounts long after the end of the conflict when a little endeavour on the part of the writers could have helped establish the hard facts. This could not be innocuous.


5.6. The Alleged Killing at the Dhaka University:

Both Abul Hasanat and Jyoti Sen Gupta have made pointed claims about the Pakistan Army's killing of students and teachers in the Dhaka University on the night of 26 March 1971. In Western democracies' an armed attack on teachers and students is not easily understood, far less considered justifiable in any circumstances. Therefore, the reported killing provoked a deep sense of outrage and condemnation. [33] The fact that some of the student dormitories were transformed into arsenals and insurgency training centres [34] and a number of the university teachers were actively involved with the secessionist movement [35] were suppressed. That the secessionists were buying arms years before the Army crack down was disclosed by Gupta himself. [36] Those who were involved in organising armed training have themselves reported that at one time there as even a plan for some of them to have military training in Indonesia. [37]

Although Jyoti Sen Gupta avoided specifically quoting the number of those killed at Iqbal Hall, the headquarters of the secessionist student leadership, he has left ample hints that it was very high. Abul Hasanat, on the other hand, has dispensed with all these clever tricks and has given a precise figure of 200. Since at the time in question I was a House Tutor at that very hall and survived the fateful night in one of the staff quarters within the building, I can claim to be an eye witness to it all. I can categorically say that on that night student activists hurriedly evacuated the hall hours before the arrival of the Army and only one student - Chishti Helalur Rahman- was killed. Indeed, if I remember correctly after Bangladesh came into being the hall administration had a total casualty figure of sixteen from among their resident and non-resident students numbering over two thousands for the whole length of the conflict. Two of my former colleagues at Iqbal Hall -Prof. Anwarul Haque Sharif (now at Jahangirnagar University) and Prof. Saefullah Bhuiya (still at Dhaka University) - are still alive and can corroborate what I have said here. Besides, if Gupta and Hasanat were interested in factual truth, they could have taken the trouble of contacting either the university or the hall authorities and certainly find out the definitive figure. What stopped them. form doing so?, one must ask.

Likewise, the killing at Jagannath Hall has been deliberately exaggerated. A poorly recorded video film of the Army movement within the hall premises was later produced. The video, it was claimed, showed the Army using bull-dozers for digging a mass grave. Although special viewing have been arranged to show the video film in and outside Bangladesh, surprisingly up until now no one has bothered to look for the alleged mass grave. Gupta, who has shown a special interest in Jagannath Hall, would have been more believable if he had enquired about the mass grave and had ascertained from the hall authorities the total number of casualties, not only on that night but throughout the whole war. The plain and simple truth is that no such grave existed and that was the reason why the author of the 'Freedom Movement in Bangladesh' stayed away from the supposed Pakistan Army 'killing field'.

In this connection it is worth recalling that immediately after the fall of Dhaka to the Indian Army, there were newspaper reports claiming unearthing of mass graves. But, none of these were seriously followed up and later the stories of these mass graves were conveniently forgotten. Even our two authors avoided any reference to them. However, on the unearthed mass graves William Drummond reported:

"Of course, there are 'mass graves' all over Bangladesh. But nobody, not even the rabid Pakistani hater, has yet asserted that all these mass graves account for more than about 1,000 victims. Furthermore, because a body is found in a mass grave does not necessarily mean that the victim was killed by the Pakistan Army. In the days immediately preceding the March 25, 1971 crackdown by the Pakistan Army, virtual anarchy prevailed in the province. In fact a sinister suspicion has arisen since, that the bodies discovered in mass graves might well have belonged to Biharis, perhaps even Bengalis killed by other Bengalis." [38]

Unlike Iqbal Hall and Jagannath Hall, both of which at least came under fire and suffered casualties, Ruqaiya Hall did not come under the Army's attention either on the night of 25 March 1971 or at any other time. Although Gupta has not mentioned the source of his accusation; it is apparently based on a leaflet that was circulated in London. The Vice Chancellor of the Dhaka University, Syed Sajjad Husain, on his visit to London in 1971 was told about this leaflet:

"When I went to Tanveer Ahmed's (Education Attache) room, whom I. knew before, we talked on various matters. He pulled out a leaflet written in large English letters from his drawer and showed it to me. He said a Bengali woman, who was known to him, was distributing it on the streets of London. The leaflet had it, 'If you have any conscience, then protest against the beastliness.' Under it there were a number of horrifying tales. A father was quoted saying that on the night of the 25th the Army entered the women's hall in Dhaka. There they have not only gunned down many girls, but have also committed beastly oppression on them. The homosexual Pathan soldiers have raped the girls in beastly manner. The father further said that when these were enacted on the ground floor, about fifty girls saw this from the upper floor. When they realised that their turn would come next, they committed suicide by jumping from the upper floor. Included among them was the daughter of the narrator. When Tanveer Ahmed protested and told the lady that she should know that there was no truth behind this, her reply was "Every thing is fair in love and war".

I told Tanveer Shaheb that I myself have spoken to Mrs Ali Imam, the Provost of the women's hall. What I have learnt from her was that after 7th March most of the girls left the hall. On the 24th there were only five girls in the hall. When rumors started spreading in Dhaka about the possibility of Army action, under Mrs Imam' s directive these girls left the hall and took shelter in the home of a House Tutor. So there could not be any question of oppression or rape being suffered by the girls of the hall." [39]

Gupta's list showing 10 faculty members had been killed is largely correct. The total was nine rather than 10 [40] and the responsibility for it was admitted by the Pakistan military authorities. But, strangely he has also quoted two other lists which were circulated by the Indian Government on the authority of foreign witnesses. [41] That some of the names included in those two lists were either nonexistent or suffered no harm was glossed over. That it has shown how some so-called foreign eye witnesses deliberately took upon themselves the task of spreading lies in order to inflame the situation was never pointed out. In this connection, it may be recalled that during the conflict a number of faculty members led by the Vice Chancellor issued a statement listing the correct casualty figure. Yet, some interested quarters abroad condemned their efforts as 'Pakistan Government instigated lies' and all of them were made to suffer in 'liberated' Bangladesh. [42]

The discrepancies between his own list and two other lists which he had included in his book should have made Gupta realise the gap between what was reported and what in fact had happened and led him to be more observant. Had either Gupta or Hasanat been a little more caring about the factual truth, rather than being over-sanguine in condemning Pakistan and her Army indiscriminately, they would have visited the Dhaka University. There they would have seen a comprehensive list of 'martyrs' on public display with the names of all those staffs and students of the university who had lost lives during the whole conflict. And from that plaque they could have counted that the total losses suffered was no more than ///. The fact that they did not, shows their buccaneer approach to truth and the utter hollowness of their casualty figures.

5.7. The Alleged Killing in Other Parts of Dhaka:

Writing about the Rajarbag police barracks, Jyoti Sen Gupta has recorded, on the authority of an American report, that most of the 5,000 policemen who were killed were those who advanced on the night of 25 March 1971 to resist the Pakistan task force intending to quell the disturbance. This claim appeared on page 284 of his book. Yet, on page 274 of his book Gupta himself told us that 'Rajarbag had about 2,500 jawans of Special Force and the Provincial Police Force'! On page 276 he transformed this 'about 2,500' into a firm figure of 2,500 'Bengali policemen'. What Gupta noted in terms of figures was in complete disregard of truth. This became obvious when he made further astounding claim that 60 per cent of the country's police force were killed. The missing members of the Police Force were not beyond accounting. The Police establishment records were in existence. Anyone inclined to believe this Indian propagandist would be well advised to check with the Police Headquarters to find out the enormity of his lie.

Talking about the exactitude of numbers, I would like to ask readers to compare Gupta' s number from 25,000 to 35,000 killed at Shankaripatti, to Anthony Mascarenhas' s estimate of 8,000 for the same part of old Dhaka. [43] The source of the American report of implied 5,000 killed at Rajarbag was, none other than the Goanese-born journalist [44] who was later rewarded by the Mujib Government with 'a London House' for his service in putting slur on Pakistan. [45] At least Gupta could take pride in having beaten the 'defecting' Pakistani journalist in the 'make-up your number' game with regard to Shankaripatti. As seasoned propagandists, perhaps, both of them knew that few readers would ever bother to see whether a small narrow street, where the alleged killing took place, could have accommodated such a number of people. Had either Gupta or Mascarenhas ever visited the street, they would have been ashamed to put such a figure.

One is tempted to say the same as regards Gupta' s casualty figure concerning Ramna Kalibari which got virtually destroyed on the night of 25 March 1971. It was one of the clandestine 'meeting place' of the 'liberationist' student leaders [46] and that could be the reason why it attracted the Army's seize. Anyone who has seen the temple, with no housing facilities around, would find it difficult to understand where from such a large number of people came to be there. Such a temple normally accommodates a priest and his family. For a family of priest to provide 250 'martyrs' for the 'freedom movement in Bangladesh' must rank as an extraordinary contribution.

Similarly, one wonders how and where Gupta got the figure of 500 burnt to death at the Ittefaq office from? The Ittefaq newspaper office is under the same owners who to-date have not said anything to support for Gupta's claim. Why not, if it was the truth? My checking shows that no one can remember reading in the paper a claim such as Gupta' s. It is amazing what Gupta could see from Calcutta, could not be seen by the owners or their management some thing which supposed to have taken place in their premises. What an amazing example of Gupta's journalistic integrity.


5.8. Fifty thousand Buddhist Killed?

Gupta has revamped an old report which claimed that during the early period of the conflict some 50,000 Buddhists were slaughtered by the Pakistan Army in the north of Bangladesh. But, was there even a remotely causal explanation why the Buddhist had to suffer such a retribution at the hand of the Pakistan Army? The answer is none. On the contrary, others have reported that through out the conflict, the Chittagong Hill Tract, where the country's Buddhist population were and still are concentrated, was a no-go area for the pro-Bangladesh insurgents. Moreover, it is a well known fact that the Chakma Chief, Raja Tridiv Roy, staunchly stood against the dismemberment of Pakistan. Even now his loyalty towards united Pakistan is such that he has remained a Pakistani citizen! It was not the Raja alone, other tribal chiefs and notables, belonging to the area and having the Buddhist faith, also stood up for Pakistan. Because of their unflinching faith in Pakistan some tribal chiefs were put behind the bars by the Mujib Government as 'Pakistani collaborators'. [47] Anyone who is familiar with the current Chakma insurgency in Bangladesh would know that it all began because of the Buddhist Chakma tribesmen's refusal to be counted as part' of Mujib's 'Bengali Nation' . [48] Against this background, Gupta's attempt to recycle propaganda report is nothing but tall tale. I have heard some of my countrymen making statement of anguish against Pakistan Army, but I have heard none accusing Pakistan Army of killing any Buddhist tribesmen. I am sure, if Gupta had bothered to check with any member of the Buddhist faith of Chittagong Hill Tract, the Buddhist tribesmen in their characteristic politeness would have invited him in and cooperated with Gupta's enquiry. Gupta did not do that since he knew that the result of his inquiry would have been unfruitful for him.


5.9. Seventeen thousand Awami Leaguers Killed?

Another revelation from the same author was that during the disturbance a total of 17,000 Awami Leaguers gave up their lives for Bangladesh. However, it was strange that he could name only one Awami Leaguer - Mosihur Rahman, MNA from Jessore [49] Like most of his claims, he did not feel the necessity of telling us where he came to have this figure from.

Why could not Gupta name more than one Awami Leaguer? The answer is no Awami League parliamentarian, other than Mosihur Rahman, was killed. The plain truth is that not a single provincial, district, subdivision, or even thana Awami League office bearer 'gave his life' for Bangladesh. Nor any of the publicly known figure of its students or labour wing was reported to have been killed.


5.10. Alleged Destruction and Killing in Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna and Chittagong:

Abul Hasanat, the author of The Ugliest Genocide stated on the strength of an agency report which in its turn based its news on the authority of a certain World Bank Team that while liberating Kushtia from the Mukti Bahini, the Pakistan Army had turned Kushtia town of 40,000 people into an utterly devastated land, as if it had suffered a nuclear attack. The implication was that none of its inhabitants was spared. This again was nothing more than a fantasy. If our author really believed in what he stated, he would have immediately visited the town after the evacuation of the Pakistan Army, with the intention of helping anyone who may have survived the alleged army action. That would have been an utmost priority for a professed humanist like Hasanat. As an experienced and well read police officer, he would have known that even Hiroshima and Nagasaki had their few survivors. Had he made such a visit, he would have found that what he stated was lie. He did not do that because in that case he would not have been able to avail the opportunity of re-telling the tales of the 'Ghastly Genocide' supposedly committed by the 'Punjabi-Pathanhordes'!

The claims that 20,000 were killed in Jessore town, 100,000 in Khulna district and 100,000 in Chittagong also fall into the above genre of lie. If these were true why did not both the claims attract simultaneous attention of both the authors? The plain and simple answer is that each figure was cooked up story of each propagandist. Besides, both Jessore and Khulna do still exist and at least a portion of their present day population had lived through those troublesome days. It is easy to establish the truth by questioning the local people. Earlier, we have seen a reputable author from Jessore, Maulana Abul Khair, telling us what the real condition of his district was. After reading the statements of Abul Hasanat and Jyoti Sen Gupta and then listening to Maulana Abul Khair, the man from the spot, one could not help but feel revulsion towards the myth makers.

5.11. Four Hundred Thousand Raped and Two Hundred Thousand Pregnant?

Apparently Abul Hasanat was not least bothered about what ordinary men and women on the spot would think of his shameless efforts, so long the 'Men That Mattered' [50] were pleased. For the benefit of his mission, he was even prepared to up-stage the 'Men That Mattered'! Otherwise he would not have belched out the above, when even his 'great leader' the 'rare product of a century or so' could not contemplate mouthing the same!

This product of superhuman divination was on the authority of a Sydney Surgeon who had purportedly spent six weeks in Bangladesh. The figure quoted give away the lie. Anyone with a minimum knowledge of female physiology would find the alleged 50 per cent pregnancy, rate utterly unbelievable. The good doctor had further said, we were reminded by our good author, that 'Between 150,000 and 170,000 of the 200,000 who fell pregnant were aborted in highly undesirable but unavoidable conditions before we even knew the problem existed.' [51] So at least between 30,000 and 50,000 raped victims were known and they and their babies were cared for? Lest you want to know where these victims were, the honest doctor has already provided the answer: 'As soon as they gave sarees to them a number did hang themselves. Many tied stones to themselves and jumped off bridges. Thousands of survivors have been abandoned by their families .. .' [52]

But what we would like to know how all these figures were arrived at? What happened to the remains of those who hanged themselves with saris (given by an agency?) or jumped off bridges? What happened to those abandoned thousands? If the Surgeon from Sydney could have all these information, surely our author could have also obtain them. Why he did not? Moreover, why the then Bangladesh Government kept these highly incriminatory facts hidden? Most of all why the 'guardians of the spirit of liberation' did not collate a few shred of such a damning truth? As we have seen earlier, Jauhuri, the Bangladeshi journalist, did try to find from the people from various districts of the country and none claimed to have personally known an incident of rape.

So what is to be made of such allegations? There must be one and only one conclusion: they were manufactured in the same manner as the myth of three million was manufactured.


Notes and References
1. Jyoti Sen Gupta, History of Freedom Movement in Bangladesh 1943-1973: Some Involvement, NayaProkash, 206 Bidhan Sarani, Calcutta - 6, 1974 : 305.
2. Disclosure at the Press Conference of the Mukti Juddha Sangsad held on 5 February 1992 and reported in all Dhaka newspapers the next day.
3. Abul Hasanat, The Ugliest Genocide in History, Muktadhara [Swadhin Bangla Sahitya Parishad] 74 Farashganj, Dhaka - I, 1974: 26-34.
4. ibid: 35-36
5. ibid: : 20
6. ihid: : 22
7. ibid: : 19
8. ibid : 42f.
9. ibid: : 52
10. ibid: : 77
11. ibid : 77
12. ibid : 88
13. ibid : 114
14. ibid: 132
15. Jyoti Sen Gupta, op cit : xxiii
16. ibid : 281-312
17. ibid : 304
18. ibid : 445
19. ibid : 283
20. ibid : 292
21. ibid : 289
22. ibid : 288
23. ibid : 288
24. ibid : 284
25. ibid : 293
26. ibid : 293
27. ibid : 295
28. ibid : 304
29. ibid : 311
30. ibid : 304
31. ibid : 311
32. ibid : 320
33. Syed Sajjad Husain, Ekattarer Sriti (Memoirs of 1971), Notun Safar Prakashani, 44 Purana Paltan, Dhaka - 1, 1993 : 68-75.
34. I can say this from my personal knowledge of Iqbal Hall and the banglow next to it which later became Abu Sayeed Hall.
35. For an account of such a teacher's secessionist activity as early as 1954 Cf. Alexander Campbell, The Heart of India, Constable & Company Ltd, London, 1958: 258-68 This Lecturer in Political Science, was rewarded by India in 1972 with an honourary doctorate and Bangladesh Government appointed him as the country's first National Professor.
36. Jyoti Sen Gupta, op cit : xxiii
37. Kazi Arif Ahmed's interview in The Weekly Meghna, vol.III, no. 14, Dhaka, 18 March, 1987.
38. William Drummond, The Missing Millions, The Guardian, London, 6 June, 1972.
39. Syed Sajjad Husain, op cit : 65-66
40. ibid
41. Jyoti Sen Gupta, op cit : 283;286
42. Among them were Syed Sajjad Husain, Dr Mohar Ali and Dr Qazi Deen Mohammed.
43. Anthony Mascarenhas, The Rape of Bangladesh, Vikas Publications, 5 Daryaganj, Ansari Road, Delhi - 6, 1971 : 114
44. ibid: 114
45. After Mujib's death this Bangladesh Government demanded the return of the money which was taken from the London branch of the Sonali Bank and it was widely reported in London's Bengali press.
46. Kaji Arif Ahmed’s interview, opcit.
47. ibid
48. ibid
49. Jyoti Sen Gupta, op cit : 394
50. Abul Hasanat, op cit: 17;73
51. ibid: 77
52. ibid: 78




 

Comments  

 
-28 # 2009-10-13 18:04

Why did this issue come up in the first place after so many years? Pakistanis and their local collaborators are war criminals. Our history is well documented and the facts are established truth. I don’t care what is written. I am sure a sinister circle including the Pakistan army is behind the financing the disinformation cyber-campaign. Indian intelligence agencies should see if ISI agent trying to smear the joint Indo-Bangla war to liberate Bangladesh in 1971.

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+26 # 2013-12-21 22:27
So you still need Indian Intelligence agencies for your survival and justification of existense. Wonder then for what did you want freedom?
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-21 # 2009-10-16 13:32

Those who have lived through the time or studied the genocide committed by the Pakistan army in Bangladesh are not easily susceptible to forays into genocide denial. It appears that books like this are aimed at those that are not familiar with the genocide. It is vitally important for Bangladeshis to preserve the history of our struggle for independence. To fail to do so would be a dishonor to the memory of those who died and to those survivors who were tormented by the Pakistani army and the Razakars.

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+20 # 2013-12-31 22:55
What you said is only fabrication and denial of actual atrocities. Many books have busted the lie (manufactured by India). Beside logic and research, a lot of why we know the killing and rape allegations are fake is because of elders who saw that so-called genocide. You only want to discredit Pakistanis and patriotic United Pakistanis even by making up stories about your moms and sisters. If we really suffered that much, then you wouldn't have to force everyone so much into hating current-Pakistan and our former United Pakistan and force us into loving India.
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+8 # 2013-12-31 23:03
If you were not lying, you would not have to try this much to make us hate current Pakistanis and former United Pakistan patriots. Besides logic and research, we know you are lying because we know from older people who saw the so-called genocide in 1971. Stop spreading hatred and stop making up stories about your moms and sisters. Stop repeating stories made by Hindus to make us forget what they did to our Muslim forefathers before our independence from Britain,
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+29 # 2009-12-18 02:17

You guys are so pathetic. You have been bought out by the Indian propaganda that you are unable to see light. Can’t you see how India used you against Pakistan? and now the same thing she is doing to you: disintegration of Bangladesh.
You idiots thought Mujib was your saviour and thought promulgation of Urdu really would marginalize you eventhough during Sirajudaullah’s time official language of Bengal had been Persian and Urdu. Mujib (died a rightful death) deceived your inside out. You guys chose the Kuffars over your Muslim brothers violating the Holy Quranic injunctions against making friends with Kuffars.
You still believe in that myth of Pakistan Army raping Bengali women. Eventhough, there are numerous reports out there now which negates the well established beliefs. The declassified US reports, Indian military officers account, Pakistan military officers account, General Niazi’s memoirs, Sharmila Bose, Hamoodurahman commission report.
I first ask you what is the punishment for a defector/rebel throughout the international community? You will agree that it is pain of death. Mujiburahman started the racial divide by creating the language issue: to make Bengali the national language of Pakistan. Bengali, being only spoken in Bengal, could not have been understood in West Pakistan. Urdu, on the other hand, was understood everywhere. He then created more problems for Pakistan. He was not the one who fought for Pakistan movement. He was an opportunists working for Russia and then India. Mujib and his cohorts should have been hanged to death as soon as the revolt had started.
Pakistan Army was justified in her actions against bengali rebels. Any self-respecting country will do that. So did India too when she murdered all members of Khalistan movement. Unfortunately, Pakistan did not have loyal leaders. Their wrong decisions made everything worse.
Pakistan Military action ONLY begun when Mukti-Bahini hoards started murdering lacs of innocent West Pakistanis (specially Punjabis) and loyal Bengali and Bihari Pakistanis (who you morons hate). These Hoards of India were responsible for the rape.
Pakistan Military officers fought hard. Many foreign correspondents speak well of their bravery. It is the bravery of a Muslim soldier that Indian Military got tough fight. These Pakistani Mard-e-Momin fought so hard that they had almost regained the control of East Pakistan from the dirty hands of Mukt-Bahini. When India saw this, She then started the military action which resulted in the fall of Dhaka.
Then your Traitor Mujib showed his true colors after the formation of Bangladesh with his BAKSAL party. How he became authoritative and usurped democracy is not a secret anymore. He was going to make Bangladesh part of India that he was killed timely by the Pakistani military officers (yes those Bengalis who never gave up allegiance to Pakistan. I stand in honor for them).
And still you called this traitor Baga-bundu?? How stupid can you guys be?
Instead of taking the opportunity to understand the other side of the story (in order that some misunderstandin g can be fought and truth is revealed), you malign them as Pakistani agent.
Why? Why your small mind can not see things beyond the tunnel created for you by RAW? Can’t you guys see that Kuffars will not be happy until they subjugate Muslims? How dare you forget the mistreatment of Bengali Muslims by the Hindu majority before Partition.
For Allah(swt) sake, don’t regurgitate what Indians want you to regurgitate. Take a step back, think outside of the box and see things from Pakistani perspective. If you were in the same shoes, you will do the same. Don’t forget the recent mutiny. just think of how you wanted to protect Bangladesh integrity when recent mutiny happened, similarly Pakistan was doing the same. Listen to what these experts are saying. Don’t put blindfolds on your eyes. There is evidences everywhere. Secrets have been declassified. Eye witness accounts are available. It is time to do a serious reprisal of our faults, shortcomings and vow not to repeat it again.
Do the following ASAP:1) Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULpCroezFrY 2) Read “RAW in Bangladesh by ZainulAbedin (an ex-Mukti Bahini member) on 1971 war. 3) Read Blood and tears by a Pakistani writer about 1971 war. 4) Check the website of Federation of American Scientist on 1971 war 5) Read “East Pakistan Tragedy” by L.F. Rushbrook Williams.

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+8 # 2010-05-24 12:11

Asher, I have read all your comments and I will stand right next to you.

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-16 # 2009-12-22 12:52

65 million of the 75 million Bengalis in Bangladesh 1971 were Muslims. These Muslims were figthing kuffars like you, the NaPaki Army and the Jamati-e-Munafiqeens. These spawns of Iblis were stopped by the inheritors of the sword of Hazrat Shah Jalal, RA. But not liquidated with the hope that these being will see the Deen of Allah, and take up the siratul mustaquim. Alas, Iblis continues to keep them on the path of jahaliya, they continue to surface their faces into the path of the muslims, faces lacking the Noor of Allah. Their return is not disheartening, for we realise that even the Khatam-un-Nabi Mohammad s.a.w faced such kuffars, so for us to face you is nothing, it continues to give us the opportunity to fight in the way of Allah and slay and be slayed. May Allah grant you hidayat before the sword of Hazrat Shah Jalal befalls you.

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+13 # 2010-01-06 21:57

Don’t forget you are a Muslim FIRST. Your allegiance is to ALLAH (swt) not to any “Shah Jalal”. I haven’t even heard of his name.
It is NOT smart to REGURGITATE what you have been fed. As a nation you haven’t gained ANYTHING. You are still IMPOVERISHED and still face flood every years. You aren’t able to do ZILCH about it but you had the audacity to blame West Pakistan for your ills.
Now where is all the revenue that you claim you used to have? Now you got 100% of all of your revenues but you still are pathetically poor. You are worse than Pakistan. I see a lot of Bangladeshis working in Pakistan. You guys have so much poverty that you take lower wages in UAE and other foreign countries. Where is all the prosperity that Mujib promised you?
Think about it. Ponder over these facts. You played yourself into the hands of enemies of Islam. “They” used you as a pawn against their imperialistic objective. They not only took revenge of Islamic rule (Indira Gandhi’s said that) but also disintegrated an otherwise strong nation. You still have the same problems as you had before 1971. They only thing you have is just Bangla-language.
Go ahead eat, sleep, drink, and wear your Bangla language or better yet, sing “Vand-e-Mataram”. Your culture and language is sooo Hinduish. At least, Punjabis, Pathans, Sindhis, Baluchis switched to Arabic Script. While you guys stand proud of your Sanskirit origin knowing full well how Hindu Bengalis persecuted Muslims Bengalis before partition.
May Allah(swt) open your eyes and you stop seeing life through your Bengali-nationalistic glasses.
I STAND in HONOR for those Pakistanis who laid their lives to protect the honor and integration of Pakistan. I stand in honor to those Pakistanis who rejected Bangladeshi nationality. These LOVERS of Pakistan chose destitution over surrender.
I cry for them and pray to Allah(swt) to give them a place in Pakistan. These are our sons and daughters who Pakistan need to own. Unfortunately, the seed of racism that you bengalis have sown in Pakistan is soooo deep rooted in Pakistan, that no one is allowing these Biharis to return because they fear that it will increase the population of Muhajirs.
You guys are partially responsible for their plight on two counts: First sowing the seed of provincialism and Second, disintegrating Pakistan. Hasbunallaho Wa Naimalwakeel

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+17 # 2010-01-06 21:18

To all those worshippers of Bengali Idol,
You should analyze things impartially from the bottom of your heart. In Pakistan, many have done the retrospection and many believe that Bengalis were wronged. To this day, we have blamed Pakistan Army UNTIL some brave men and women came out with the other side of the picture. Agartalah Conspiracy had exposed the designs of Mujib and India. He was arrested (just like any sovereign nation would arrest the defectors) and should have been IMMEDIATELY hanged but unfortunately, our STUPID politicians didn’t realize India’s game and this Traitor was released who did the very thing which he was arrested for. That he announced the formation of Bangladesh while still in Pakistan and as a Pakistani Citizen. I call it the BLATANT FORM of defection.
It is simply logical how can the KUFFARS be your friend. KUFFARS can be friends of each other and not to any Muslim. The benefits that they have given you superficially is just a joke. In return of that, they have taken your freedom.
Knowing very well when and why RAW was formed, knowing that they hired Moosad’s assistance to disintegrate Pakistan and knowing the DECLASSIFIED information, I REJECT the myth of Pakistan Army’s rape. I am 100% convinced it is based on propaganda, misinterpretati on of events, lying and DECEPTION of RAW and “Mir Jaafars” of Pakistan. (I also include West Pakistani corrupt politicians and feudal hoards along with Bengali REBELS).
Throughout the Pakistan Movement, Congress and Fanatic Hindus incessantly worked on either stopping Pakistan movement or disintegrating Pakistan right after her inception. Historical records are available that depict the struggle between Pro and Anti Pakistan groups. India supported Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (a Pathan congress member), GM Syed (A Sindhi Congress member), Mujiburahman (May Allah(swt) award him STRICTEST punishment in his grave), Unionist Party members, some Renegade Baluchi leaders etc. RAW continued to support them. They were successful to an extent. We lost Kashmir, Junagarh, Hyderabad, Assam etc. We lost Khan Liaqat Ali Khan. After that Punjabi fuedal lords (who were loyal to British, Hindus etc) took over and then they fucked every thing up. They made wrong decisions and neglected many Pakistanis. No proper system was established. There was poverty everywhere. BUT that is NO excuse of disintegrating Pakistan. We should have, as a Nation, stood up against all the oppression and mismanagement. Why we didn’t rise as a PAKISTNI NATION? Why did we choose Bengali Nationalism over Muslim Unity? I wished this hadn’t happened. It all started with the language issue when Jinnah made Urdu the national language of Pakistan. How DARE you traitors reject that? You guys are the FIRST one to sow the seed of racism/provincialism in Pakistan. After that we got divided into Punjabis,Sindhi s, Pathans and then Mohajirs. I am EXTREMELY angry while I am writing this.
Now you tell me all those Bengali-loving Bengalis, why you don’t make any language issue when you immigrate to foreign lands. There is NO movement in UK or USA against ENGLISH. There you accept English as an offical language and are satisfied with Bengali being a secondary langauge.
Allah’s (swt) WOE to ALL those who subscribed to this Idols and prefer the friendship of Kuffars over Muslims. You will gain nothing but “Zillat” (as it known in Urdu)

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+8 # 2010-01-06 21:38

I wish you had realized this that we, together as a nation, could have conquered the Muslim belt of India between West and East Pakistan and up to Assam. We would have then become one big contiguous nation. We could have gotten WHOLE of Bengal.
It is still NOT too late. We can still join again but, maybe, as a confederation, union or mutually-cooperative block (like European union).
But first, we need to uncover all the facts hidden under years of deception. Please, Please and Please don’t hate those who subscribe to a different view than yours. Listen to what they have to say. Think about it and have the guts to admit the faults. How sure are you that it wasn’t Indian Army who committed the rape. Don’t forget why military had to be called. DON’T FORGET THIS IMPORTANT EVENT. If you think about it deeply many myths will be nullified. It was Mukti Bahini Hoards that started GENOCIDE of non-bengalis. They killed many, many, many INNOCENT Pakistanis which included (Punjabis, Pakistan-loving Bengalis, Biharis and other nationalities). These murderers were RUTHLESS. How can you say that THEY DIDN’T RAPE anyone? Those accounts have been CONVENIENTLY, either deleted or IGNORED. The number of killing was huge. I don’t know how much. When these traitors went overboard THEN Pak Army was called. They did what they SHOULD have done. KILL ALL THOSE BASTARD murderers who were responsible for all the FITNAH which resulted in so many innocent deaths.
I want you people to think logically. Keep all these facts in mind before you malign Pakistan or her Army. You can not get away with your crimes. If you are so vocal about Pak Army’s alleged persecution, then why CONVENIENTLY ignore the Mukti-Bahini persecution. They killed a huge number. I pray to Allah(swt) to let Muslims see thier enemies and be united under Islam.

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-9 # 2010-05-07 02:44

Good to know. Now that you deny the number 3 million, would you please be kind and articulate enough to let the world know, exactly how many of our people and women the Napak army killed and raped?

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+12 # 2010-05-07 18:34

You didn't read this book. Did you? Why don't you refute the writers argument if you feel so confident about yours? Can you please let us know why you people treat the 3 million figure as if thats a kind of divine entity. Where in fact it has no base at all. This shows the kind of hero worshipping you guys are engaged in. Just cause a despot like Mujib said so, you have to repeat it blindly. Don't you think the burden of proof lies on you guys as this imaginery figure was first purported by your master. So why ask others to prove it? Don't you think this kind of blatant lies and exaggeration severely affect you guy's credibility? Besides, the secessionist are solely responsible for all those people killed during 71. They have commited treachery in 71 and I'm sure they'll do it again. Bangladesh is still in severe denger by such collaborators of India.

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+10 # 2010-05-07 21:04

Reading Mr Fatemolla's comment reminded me of that famous quote, "Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they will believe it."- Adolf Hitler
The efforts to establish the imaginary 3 million figure as fact is a perfect example of such quotation in action. My question to Fatemolla is why not you show your arguments? The writer has already written a well argued book but still you are asking for more! What a joke! The onus is on you. Don't pass the bucket. You should be grateful that Dr Mumin has even bothered to spend time on such a ridiculous myth.

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+7 # 2010-08-12 18:50


You tell me Fatemolla how many died? Just because you are a Baksalite you have to support any numbers. If that idiot Mujib came up with 6 million you morons would have beleived that! Logics, Data does not work there...because you guys are Nastik and serving Raw's agenda.

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+2 # 2013-12-17 19:38
Please read a book by SHARMILA BOSE, an Indian Bengali researcher and professor, who wrote a book about this myth. Keep in mind she is INDIAN, so that you may have trust on the book. Because you don't trust YOUR half but you trust who SPLIT YOU into half. I wish you know the meaning of Ummah.
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+1 # 2013-12-30 01:33
For your question of how many killed, the # of people died during the operation were given by then Govt. of East Pakistan.
Now the figures might be objectionable and debate can be generated. But the figure of "3 millions died" is questionable too. Since claim of 3M was made by Sheikh Mujib, the evidence should come from your side too.
Enough have been talked about it and time has come that both countries should move forward after settling such issues. Let's be practical and realistic.
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+1 # 2014-11-06 15:12
BTW your forefathers had a due share in the creation of this Na-Pak Army. Blame them too. 1 killed or 3M killed have the same meanings. Using a baseless logic for all those innocents killed in the process, you are doing no service to them except adding more insult to their souls.
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+1 # 2010-10-19 03:24
সরকার কি পারে না এর একটা শুমারী করতে? তাতে তো প্রকৃত সংখ্যার কাছাকাছি একটা সংখ্যা পাওয়া যাবে!
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+7 # 2010-12-25 23:26

Hey All! It seems you guys are fighting which is no service to the greatest causes of your nations. There should be a criticism but it should be constructive not the destructive one. History itself is a big surgeon, when it will do the surgery, it will bring all the truths out. Who is guilty and who is not. Bengali Muslim or Pakistani Muslim. I would only say that both the nations should concentrate over the integrity and well-being of their countrymen. Calling "Kafirs" to one another is not a healthy practice. Does ISLAM teaches you that being Muslims? To those Pakistanis commenting here; don't you see it at least blessing in disguise that Bangladesh is a Free Muslim State which didn't became part of India. Claiming brotherhood is easy than proving it. Pakistan should strengthen the hands of Bangladesh, how bitter our past is, even then we are Muslims. Leave the rest with the history to do surgery of this myth and if you don't believe in that then leave it to Allah (SWT) - Who is the best of the best Judge. He will not spare any Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian - responsible for those involved in the crime of killing of innocent people on both sides. May Allah Bless you all.

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+6 # 2011-01-03 02:10


Debunking the Myth: I believe there is still time to do a genuine survey on how many people died. But the problem is the AL hero-worshipers and the AL fascists will not allow it because it will kill the myth made by Mujib.
Let's say, even if the AL does the survey, with the accused murder suspect or the vandal judge as the chief, or any other fake AL judges people shouldn't trust the survey.

I know in our village only one person died on March 3. I was about to be killed by razakars but their aim was not sharp enough.

Like everything else polarized, I think the BNP is going claim the figure as 1 million including the Biharis, the AL will claim 3 million excluding the Biharis. But with a neutral survey we are going to claim something that is close to the real figure.

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-2 # 2011-01-04 18:18


Some commentators are missing the issue here.
For those who support 3 million is not doing any favor to the victims of Pak Army genocide in 1971,one pays respect to those victim only and only by bringing about the accurate nos or the truth or near truth.
It is true some pro BAL elements are promoting the lie of nos of casualty just because thier demigod leader Mujib mentioned it once and insisted on the numbers. It is really stupidity of highest order to blindly believe a fake number.It is of no importance now after 40 yrs but clearly the figure has to be non controvercial. Even if it was 100 casualty it would still be abhored and I will seek for trail of the Pak Army officers involved and War criminals during the event victim being either the Bangladeshi muslims Hindu or the biharis.
For some people whose comment supports the Pakistan Army action are also filled with all wrong information and analysis, another extreme of misguided veiw about the 1971 event.
Mujib never wanted separation of state he clearly wanted to be PM of Pakistan which he rightfully deserved after getting the majority in the 1970 election. Mujib would have fled to India instead of waiting to be arrested by notorious Yahya Khan's Govt.
So spent your time in reading history not just from heresay and make intilligent comment.

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+2 # 2013-12-17 19:30
Also mention those west Pakistani soldiers fighting against India at east Pakistan boarder, miles miles away from their home just to defend and save country from Indians. If u were one of them who would you shoot 1st? Indian offender at the boarder or khaarji mukti inside the boarder? I know people who chose to shoot Indian and got shot by muktis. I have met friends of those people. That's heartbreaking, you can't even imagine. I wish you people at least realize now you have been used. Allah bless you.
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+7 # 2011-02-08 10:35


No question, Pak army savagely killed people in Bangladesh. Yahya Khan used religion as a tool of oppression. Injustice can never be sustained. And that gave rise to new Bangladesh.
What we need to carefully examine, what is the realistic number? How can Sheikh Mujib claim 3 million death?
Pak Army were stationed in East Pakistan: 35,000 soldiers. They were here for 260 days (9 months) only. For an army of 35,000 to kill 3,000,000 people in 260 days, that's almost impossible. The sensible statistics does not add up. Sheikh Mujib always flab about his achievements, he had a tenacity to exaggerate, in short lie. Mujib lied, and no one questioned him ever?

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+2 # 2014-01-04 06:06
"Pak army savagely killed people in Bangladesh. Yahya Khan used religion as a tool of oppression. Injustice can never be sustained. And that gave rise to new Bangladesh." --- Yes this is what the Indians teach us but it's wrong. If there was no India there would be no change of East Pakistan. Pak army tried to eliminate agents working for India and this is the undeniable truth. Some East Pakistanis (and even W.Pakistanis) supported administrative separation of the two Pakistani wings, but that doesn't mean they supported intervention and invasion by India.
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+11 # 2012-04-05 18:43

Please don't forget the savage killings of non-Bengalis by mukti bahini.

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+5 # 2014-11-09 06:07
It's a shame to think that Bangladesh is standing on a big lie.
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